# Simple Method for writing Lewis Electron Dot Structures - Ozone O_{3} and carbonate CO_{3}^{-2}

**A simple method for writing Lewis electron dot structures** is given in a previous article entitled “Lewis Structures and the Octet Rule”.
Examples for writing Lewis structures following the above procedure are given bellow:

Consider the case of **ozone** **O _{3} Lewis electron dot structures**:

__Step1__: The central atom will be one of the oxygen atoms. Connect the 3 atoms with a single bonds

__Step 2__: Calculate the # of electrons in p bonds (pi bonds, multiple bonds) using formula (**1) **in the article entitled “Lewis Structures and the Octet Rule”.

Where n in this case is 3 since O_{3}^{ }consists of three atoms

Where V = (6 + 6 + 6 ) = 18

Therefore, P = 6n + 2 – V = 6 * 3 + 2 – 18 = 2 Therefore, there are 2 π electrons (pi electrons) in O_{3}^{ }and so 1 double bond must be added to the structure of Step 1.

__Step 3 & 4__: The 2 atoms are joined together with a double bond. Therefore the **Lewis electron dot structures for O _{3}** are as follows:

Consider the case of the** Lewis electron dot structures of the carbonate ion**, CO_{3}^{-2}

Carbonate species act as buffers and are necessary for all biological systems. They also play important role in neutralization of strong acids and bases. The carbonate system as it is called is the major source of buffering in the ocean and in natural waters.

__ Step1__: The central atom will be the C atom since it is the only atom with “subscript” equal to 1 in the molecular formula. Connect the O atoms with the C atom with single bonds.

__ Step 2__: Calculate the # of electrons in π bonds (pi bonds, multiple bonds) using formula(1) in the article entitled “Lewis Structures and the Octet Rule”.:

Where n in this case is 4 since CO_{3}^{-2}^{}consists of four atoms

Where V = (4 + 6 + 6 + 6 ) – (-2) = 24 Therefore, P = 6n + 2 – V = 6 * 4 + 2 – 24 = 2

There are 2 π electrons (pi electrons) in ^{ }CO_{3}^{-2}^{ }and therefore 1 double bond must be added to the structure of Step 1.

__ Step 3 & 4__: One double bond between C and O is added to the structure in step 1. Unshared electron pairs are added so that there is an octet of electrons around each atom. All the equivalent resonance structures are drawn by delocalizing electron pairs. Therefore, the

**Lewis electron dot structures for CO**

_{3}^{-2}**are as follows:**

^{}_{3}

^{-2}. The 3 structures are equivalent since they have equal formal charges on the elements. It has been proven experimentally that the C-O bond in the carbonate ion is a hybrid of a single and a double bond (the length of the C-O bond in the carbonate ion is approximately half of the sum of the lengths of a normal C-O and C=O bond).This means that the theoretical Lewis structures are in agreement with experimental results.

how to do it for CH4

ReplyDeletewhy we should put double bond instead of full lone pair at O?

ReplyDeleteStructures with large charge separation are unstable. This means that are minor contributors to the resonance. If you put a lone pair the charge separation is larger and you draw a minor contributor.

DeleteThis is most helpful for me

ReplyDeleteThanks

How to place unshared electrons after calculation of P(formula for multiple bond determination )?

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