Chemistry Net: Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry

Organic Chemistry

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

 

The study of carbon-containing compounds and their properties and reactions is called organic chemistry. This branch of chemistry was originally limited to compounds produced by living organisms but has been broadened to include human-made substances such as synthetic fibers, plastics, artificial sweeteners, drugs that are products of industrial organic chemistry.

Originally, the distinction between inorganic and organic substances was based on whether a compound was produced by living systems. Until the early nineteenth century it was believed that organic compounds had some sort of "life force" and could be synthesized only by living organisms. This view was changed in 1828 when the German chemist Friedrich Wohler prepared urea from the inorganic salt ammonium cyanate by heating:

 

Fig. I.1:  Preparing urea in the laboratory

 

Urea, is a component of urine, so it is clearly an organic compound, yet it was synthesized in the laboratory as well as by living things.

Carbon has the unusual ability of bonding strongly to itself to form long chains or rings of carbon atoms. In addition, carbon forms strong bonds to other atoms such as hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and the halogens. Because of these bonding properties, there are several million of carbon compounds and the number continues to grow rapidly.

Organic compounds such as rubber, plastics, fuel, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, detergent, coatings are all around us. They are important for our lifes and economic prosperity.

 


References

  1. R. Bruckner, “Advanced Organic Chemistry – Reaction Mechanisms”, 2nd Edition, Elsevier, 2002

  2. M.B. Smith & J. March “March’s Advanced Organic Chemistry”, 6th Edition, Wiley-Interscience, 2007

2 comments:

  1. Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond:

    REVIEW. Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond (full version, 93 p.).
    http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0018v5.pdf

    1. Structure of the benzene molecule on the basis of the three-electron bond.
    http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0152v1.pdf

    2. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the three-electron bond and theoretical basis ot its existence.
    http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v2.pdf

    3. A short analysis of chemical bonds.
    http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0149v2.pdf

    4. Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond.
    http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v2.pdf

    5. Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works with brief comments.
    http://vixra.org/pdf/1607.0022v2.pdf

    6. REVIEW. Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond (full version, 93 p.). http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0018v5.pdf

    7. Quantum-mechanical aspects of the L. Pauling's resonance theory.
    http://vixra.org/pdf/1702.0333v2.pdf

    8. Quantum-mechanical analysis of the MO method and VB method from the position of PQS.
    http://vixra.org/pdf/1704.0068v1.pdf

    Theoretical justification of three-electron bond with multiplicity of 1.5 which can be explained by the structure of the benzene molecule and many other organic and inorganic compounds.
    Justification of three-electron bond given here:

    1. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the three-electron bond and theoretical basis of its existence. pp. 5-7 http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v2.pdf

    2. Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond. pp. 1-7 http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v2.pdf

    An attempt was made to explain the mechanism of interaction of particles in an entangled quantum state on the basis of a new model of the Interfering Universe.
    Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond. p. 6: http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v2.pdf

    Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (viXra): http://vixra.org/author/bezverkhniy_volodymyr_dmytrovych

    The aromatic bond is a three-electron bond in flat cyclic systems with a specific interaction of electrons through the cycle.
    In benzene formed a new type of chemical bonds - an aromatic bond (C-C), which has a multiplicity of more than 1.5 (1.66) (multiplicity C-C in ethane = 1 and multiplicity C-C in ethylene = 2). It is not correct to provide an aromatic bond as a combination of single and double bond (for simplicity we can) is a new type of chemical bonding that explains the resistance of benzene and chemical properties and other properties in aromatic compounds.

    Using the concept three-electron bond with multiplicity of 1.5 and take account of the spin of each electron leads to very good results in the description of the benzene molecule and explain the aromaticity in general. With the help of three-electron bond with multiplicity of 1.5 can be represented by a real formula of many organic and inorganic molecules without the aid of virtual structures (actual electron structure of benzene, explain specificity of the aromatic bond, calculate the delocalization energy).

    It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond on bond distance (multiplicity = f(L) and Е = f(L), where multiplicity is multiplicity of bond, L – length of bond in Å, Е – energy of bond in kj/mole, C-N, C-O, C-S, N-N, N-O, O-O, C-P). Using these dependences it is possible to calculate chemical bound energy by different bond distance or different multiplicity of chemical bond, that makes possible to calculate delocalization energy of benzene molecule.
    Hückel rule (4n + 2) for aromatic systems can be written in a different form, in the form of 2n where n - unpaired number. So, we have: 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, etc. This is also true for the electron shells in the atom and aromatic systems. The principle of the interaction of fermions always one, everywhere.

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    Replies
    1. The present work shows the inapplicability of the Pauli principle to chemical bond, and a new theoretical model of the chemical bond is proposed based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.

      See pp. 88 - 104 Review. Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. (The Pauli exclusion principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and chemical bond). http://vixra.org/pdf/1710.0326v1.pdf

      Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond:

      Review. Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. (The Pauli exclusion principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and chemical bond). http://vixra.org/pdf/1710.0326v1.pdf

      1. Structure of the benzene molecule on the basis of the three-electron bond.
      http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0152v1.pdf

      2. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the three-electron bond and theoretical basis ot its existence.
      http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v2.pdf

      3. A short analysis of chemical bonds.
      http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0149v2.pdf

      4. Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond.
      http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v2.pdf

      5. Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works with brief comments.
      http://vixra.org/pdf/1607.0022v2.pdf

      6. REVIEW. Benzene on the basis of the three-electron bond. http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0018v5.pdf

      7. Quantum-mechanical aspects of the L. Pauling's resonance theory.
      http://vixra.org/pdf/1702.0333v2.pdf

      8. Quantum-mechanical analysis of the MO method and VB method from the position of PQS.
      http://vixra.org/pdf/1704.0068v1.pdf

      9. Review. Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. (The Pauli exclusion principle, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and chemical bond). http://vixra.org/pdf/1710.0326v1.pdf

      Bezverkhniy Volodymyr (viXra):http://vixra.org/author/bezverkhniy_volodymyr_dmytrovych

      Delete