Preparing Standard Buffer Solutions -Phthalate Acid and Neutralized Buffers | Chemistry Net

Preparing Standard Buffer Solutions -Phthalate Acid and Neutralized Buffers

Preparing Standard Buffer Solutions -Pthalate Buffers

Preparing Standard Buffer Solutions -Phthalate Acid and Neutralized Buffers

 

In a previous post entitled "Buffer Solutions - How to prepare buffer solutions" the basic steps for designing buffers were presented. It was shown that it is possible to prepare buffer solutions that maintain the pH close to any desired value by the proper choice of a weak acid and its conjugate base and their relatitive concentrations.

The following steps can be used to prepare different buffers:

  • Determine the optimal pH (the required pH)
  • Select a weak acid with a pka near the desired pH
  • Calculate the ratio of salt to acid required to produce the desired pH (Henderson-Hasselbach equation): pH = pka - log [HA]O/[A-]O
  • Determine the desired buffer capacity of the solution
  • Calculate the total buffer concentration required to produce this buffer capacity ß (Van Slyke equation): ß = 2.3* C* (ka * [H3O+]) / (ka + [H3O+] )2
  • Determine the pH and the buffer capacity of the final buffer solution using a reliable pH meter.

 

As an example it was described how to prepare a hydrochloric acid standard buffer solution. In this post it will be shown how to prepare an acid phthalate, a neutralized phthalate buffer.

 

Acid Phthalate Buffer 

  • Prepare the following solutions:

Hydrochloric Acid , 1 M:

  1. Prepare a 1 M HCl solution: Dilute 85 ml of HCl (d=36.46) with water to 1000 ml.
  2. Standarize the above solution as follows: Weight 5.0 g of tromethamine, dried according to the label instructions or, if this information is not available, dried at 105 C for 3 h. Dissolve in 50 ml of water and add 2 drops of bromocresol green. Titrate with 1M HCl to a pale yellow endpont:

M = mg tromethamine / (121.14 * ml HCl) (M, Molarity of solution)

Hydrochloric Acid , 0.2 M:  

  1. Prepare a 0.2 M HCl solution: Dilute appropriatelly the 1 M HCl solution

 

Potassium Biphthalate, 0.2 M:  

  1. Dissolve 40.85 g of potassium biphthalate in water
  2. Dilute with water to 1000 ml

 

  • Place 50 ml of the 0.2 M potassium biphthalate solution in a 200 ml volumetric flask
  • Add the volume of the 0.2 M HCl shown in the table below
  • Add water to volume 200 ml

 

Table 1: Acid Phthalate Buffer - Standard Buffer Solution
pH
0.2 M HCl (ml)
0.2 M Potassium Biphthalate
2.2
49.5
50
2.4
42.2
50
2.6
35.4
50
2.8
28.9
50
3.0
22.3
50
3.2
15.7
50
3.4
10.4
50
3.6
6.3
50
3.8
2.9
50
4.0
0.1
50

 

 

Neutralized Phthalate Buffer 

  • Prepare the following solutions:

Sodium Hydroxide , 1 M:

  1. Dissolve 162 g of sodium hydroxide in 150 ml of carbon dioxide-free water, cool the solution to room temperature and filter through hardened filter paper. Transfer 54.5 ml of the clear filtrate to a tight, polyolefin container, and dilute with carbon dioxide-free water to 1000 ml.
  2. Standarize the above solution as follows: Accurately weigh about 5 g of potassium biphthalate, previously crushed lightly and dried at 120 C for 2 hours, and dissolve in 75 ml of carbon dioxide-free water. Add 2 drops of phenolphthalein and titrate with the sodium hydroxide solution to the production of a permanent pink color.

M = g KHC8H4O4 /( 0.20422 * ml NaOH solution) (M, Molarity of solution)

Sodium Hydroxide, 0.2 M:  

  1. Prepare a 0.2 M NaOH solution: Dilute appropriatelly the 1 M NaOH solution

 

  • Place 50 ml of the 0.2 M potassium biphthalate solution in a 200 ml volumetric flask
  • Add the volume of the 0.2 M NaOH solution shown in the table below
  • Add water to volume 200 ml
  •  

Table 2: Neutralized Phthalate Buffer - Standard Buffer Solution
pH
0.2 M NaOH (ml)
0.2 M Potassium Biphthalate
4.2
3.0
50
4.4
6.6
50
4.6
11.1
50
4.8
16.5
50
5.0
22.6
50
5.2
28.8
50
5.4
34.1
50
5.6
38.8
50
5.8
42.3
50

 



References

  1. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 52nd edition, The Chemical Rubber Co., (1971)
  2. U.S. Pharmacopeia, 68, USP 36
  3. David W. Oxtoby, H.P. Gillis, Alan Campion, “Principles of Modern Chemistry”, Sixth Edition, Thomson Brooks/Cole, 2008
  4. Steven S. Zumdahl, “Chemical Principles”  6th Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2009

Key Terms

preparing standard buffer solutions, phthalate buffers, acid phthalate buffer, neutralized phthalate buffer,


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